disease severity. Superoxide (O2 )can activate several damaging pathways in diabetes including accelerated formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE polyol pathway, hexosamine pathway and PKC, all of which have been proven to be involved in micro- and macrovascular complications ( Aronson, 2008 ) Furthermore, O2 immediately. The physiological role of ROS is associated with almost all of the body processes, for example, with reproductive processes. Antioxidants donate an electron to the free radical ( Wang., 2008 ). Oxidative stress: Damage to intact cells and organs. Subsequently, these free radical s change lipid/protein ratio of membranes by affecting profession for Women poly-unsaturated fatty acid s and lipid peroxidation causing functional irregularities of several cellular organelles. Oxidation of DNA bases can cause mutations and deletions in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Some of the early glycosylation products on long-lived proteins (e.g., vessel wall collagen) continue to undergo complex series of chemical rearrangement to form AGEs, once formed, AGE-protein adducts are stable and virtually irreversible.
Introduction, man and animals are exposed to a large number of biological and environmental factors like alterations in feed and husbandry practices, climatic variables, transportation, regrouping, the therapeutic and prophylactic activities, various stressors, and so forth. Any emotional stress leads to a decrease in sympathetic outflow as well as energy production of the tissues. Chronic restraining of laboratory animals has been found to increase aggression, potentiate anxiety, and enhance fear conditioning. Peroxidation of membrane associated fatty acid s and cholesterol will alter cell membrane fluidity and permeability characteristics and may eventually induce widespread membrane damage. Out of these redox pairs, the GSH-to-gssg ratio is thought to be one of most abundant redox buffer systems in mammalian species.
A Review of Oxidative Stress
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