overlooked by someone eager to find a famous target to disagree with. Les passions de l'me, a treatise on the early modern version of what are now commonly called emotions, Descartes goes so far as to assert that he will write on this topic "as if no one had written on these matters before". But human beings have finite intellects. He rendered light as a property of particles and their motions: it is a tendency to move as found in a continuous medium and radiating out from a luminous body. The first and primary substance is God, whose essence is perfection. But he eschewed all this, resolving to seek no knowledge other than that of which could be found in myself or else in the great book of the world, he wrote much later. Everything is linked and everything depends upon a proper philosophical grounding, but the fruit comes from the branches of science. This can be seen in the revival of body-first theories of the emotions.
Kantian Philosophy vs. Nietsche
Personal Experience Affects Philosophy
Plato and Philosophy
If clarity the Term Gangsterism and distinctness is the mark of truth, what is the method for recognizing clarity and distinctness? Descartes and Beeckman engaged in what they called physico-mathematica, or mathematical physics (10:52). His theory of vision was part of that heritage, as were his results in mathematics. But there are other intellectual acts that require the presence of the body: sense perception, imagination, and corporeal (body-involving) memory. He and his colleagues published two works (in 16) attacking Descartes' philosophy, to which Descartes himself responded by publishing a Letter to Voetius (1643). Leibniz are also aware of his philosophical development, although in his case there is less agreement on how to place his writings into a developmental scheme. IV.188 but he included some discussion of mindbody union in his abbreviated account of the senses.