are the kinds of beings that can be wronged. The question is not, Can they reason? While it is probably true that the seal had an immediate interest in avoiding suffering, it is less clear that the seal has a future directed interest in continued existence. If he is not to stifle his human feelings, he must practice kindness towards animals, for he who is cruel to animals becomes hard also in his dealings with men. These are experiments in which the probability of satisfying crucial or important interests for many who suffer from some debilitating or fatal disease is high, and the numbers of non-human animals whose crucial interests are violated is low.
Niccolo Machiavelli and the Prince - SchoolWorkHelper
And all these dimensions of our life, including our pleasure and pain, our enjoyment and suffering, our satisfaction and frustration, our continued existence or our untimely deathall make a difference to the quality of our life as lived, as experienced, by us as individuals. Philosophers Elisa Aaltola and Lori Gruen have argued for refining our empathetic imagination in order to improve our relationships with each other and other animals. Similarly, if there are two courses of action, one which causes extreme amounts of suffering and ultimate death, and one which causes much less suffering and painless death, then the latter would be morally preferable to the former. Like Napoleon, Stalin was unconcerned with debates and ideas. As the same is themes from The Glory Field true of animals they too must be viewed as the experiencing subjects of a life, with inherent value of their own. (Hursthouse 2000: 165166; see also Diamond 2001 especially chs. As a morally irrelevant characteristic it cannot serve as the basis for a view that holds that our species deserves moral consideration that is not owed to members of other species. Regan argues that because persons share with certain non-persons (which includes those humans and non-humans who have a certain level of organized cognitive function) the ability to be experiencing subject of a life and to have an individual welfare that matters to them regardless. When someone rapes a woman in a coma, or whips a severely brain damaged child, or sets a cat on fire, they are not simply disrespecting humanity or themselves as representatives of it, they are wronging these non-persons. Another animal can obligate you in exactly the same way another person can. This is due to the fact that although some citizens decidedly are against the Party, the restrictive atmosphere prevents them from networking with other like-minded individuals. The reflective mind cannot settle for perception and desire, not just as such.