if you like, it is an answer to the question of how the officer class is going to divide up the spoils, how they are going to run things. But countries with those systems have exactly the same problems as Britain. . Even in this Parliament, the Government has been defeated four times already on its legislation, and that's a greater number of times than any Government with a secure majority since the War. . It is worth perhaps pointing out that part of Tony Blair's skill as a politician is to convert position issues into valence issues, because the position issues associated with the Labour Party in the past, like nationalisation and public control, were highly unpopular with the. This is true whatever the constitutional set-up of the country. . The second reason is, sadly certainly for the sale of my books, that there is very little public interest in the constitution. . Now we have got no less than four different electoral systems used, together with first-past-the-post, in Britain. . We have had referendums in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales on devolution, and they were all successful. . Why not have popular participation on issues of that kind? . Thus there is a conflict there, and that conflict has not been worked out, either in theory or in practice. .
That is a striking deviation, because in almost every democracy, turnout has fallen from the high levels of the 1960s and '70s to much lower levels now. There have been some reforms in the Commons, but perhaps not as fundamental as some of the other reforms. . In other words, there has not been a redistribution of power from the politicians to the people or the electorate. . You may think the Human Rights Act is a good thing but you hope never to actually use it - you do not want to use the courts so the Human Rights Act is not a central feature of your life. . You may say that if voters can be trusted to decide these issues for themselves, why not wider issues also? .
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Of course, our system of representative democracy rests essentially upon political parties, and it is political parties as mass organisations that seem to be in decline. . It is a remarkable figure because the Government hopes to get 50 of young people into university, and if this figure is right, it means that more young people will be going to university than voting, which I think is cause for thought. . We have got the supplementary vote, qumran, The Essenes And The Dead Sea Scrolls which is used for the London Mayor, which people here who live in London who voted for it will have used themselves. . He learnt this tactic from Clinton. . It relates to Wales. .